1286 (-) King of Scotland Alexander III dies at the age of 44 in Pettycur, Kinghorn, Scotland, United Kingdom.
After a long council, albeit with plenty of alcohol, he was desperate to return to his queen. Although everyone everyone advised him to make the 8-mile journey at nightfall with a storm approaching, he rode off into the night. The next morning he was found with a broken neck, having been thrown off his horse.
1721 (-) 243rd Pope Clementius XI originally Giovanni Francesco Albani, dies at the age of 71 in Urbino, Italy.
1742 (+) Revolutionary Leader Túpac Amaru II originally José Gabriel Condorcanqui, is born in Tinta, Cusco, Peru.
1813 (+) Explorer David Livingstone is born in Blantyre, Lanarkshire, United Kingdom.
1831 (x) Bank Robber Edward Smith and an accomplice break into the City Bank in what is thought to be the first U.S. bank robbery in New York, New York, USA.
They stole $228,000 in coin and currency, of which only $175,000 was ever recovered.
1871 (+) Lover of Crown Prince Rudolf Mary Vetsera is born in Vienna, Austria.
1873 (+) Composer Max Reger is born in Brand, Germany.
1888 (+) Artist Josef Albers is born in Bottrop, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany.
1901 (-) George Henry Parker is executed by hanging.
1905 (+) Nazi-architect Albert Berthold Konrad Hermann Speer is born in Mannheim, Baden, Germany.
1906 (+) Nazi-leader Adolf Eichmann is born in Solingen, Germany.
1921 (+) Actor and comedian Tommy Thomas Frederick Cooper is born in Caerphilly, Wales, United Kingdom.
1933 (+) Writer Philip Roth is born in Newark, New Jersey, USA.
1936 (+) Actress Ursula Andress is born in Bern, Switzerland.
1944 (+) Assassin of Robert F. Kennedy Sirhan Bishara Sirhan is born in Jerusalem, Israël.
1945 (+) Serial Killer Randy Stephen Kraft aka The Freeway Killer, is born in Long Beach, California, USA.
1950 (-) Creator of Tarzan Edgar Rice Burroughs dies of a heart attack at the age of 74 in Encino, California, USA.
1968 (-) Filmmaker Theodor Carl Dreyer dies at the age of 79 in Copenhagen, Denmark.
1971 (-) Lutgarde Van Der Wilt is raped, strangled and mutilated by Gustaaf Van Eyken aka De Vampier van Muizen, at the age of 19 in Bonheiden, Wielewaalreservaat Zellaar, Antwerp, Belgium.
1993 (-) Murderer Fred Brown is executed by hanging at the age of 44 in Maryland, USA.
1997 (-) Artist Willem De Kooning dies of Alzheimer's disease at the age of 92 in Long Island, New York, USA.
2001 (x) Start of the trial against 38-year-old Serial Killer Guy Georges aka Le Tueur de la Bastille, in Paris, France.
2005 (x) Start of the trial against 65-year-old Musician and record producer Phil Harvey Philip Spector aka The Wall of Sound, for the murder of 40-year-old nightclub hostess and B movie-actress Lana Clarkson in Los Angeles, California, USA.
2008 (-) Writer and Space Odysseyist Arthur C. Charles Clarke dies of respiratory failure at the age of 90 in Colombo, Sri Lanka.